The Education Station

A discussion of education in America, also published in print by The Alabama Gazette.

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"They Preached Liberty"

Bobbie Ames - Friday, July 01, 2016

Years ago, D. James Kennedy sent me a book which he had published through Coral Ridge Ministries, by this title. He had made a passionate search of particular sermons preached throughout New England by virtually all the ministers of the period, from the 1700s through the period of the American Revolution and beyond. They were titled Election Sermons and Artillery Sermons. Of all the sermons preached in those early pulpits, these were the sermons that were printed out and most widely distributed among the American citizens. This one fact should give cause to look carefully at those sermons and discover that Liberty was of utmost importance to those ministers. Liberty was the passion of the citizens, who faced peril from the mother country.

In early America, Liberty was under fire as it is today. The Puritan clergy have been rightly called "The Watchmen on the Wall." This group of clergy were the most highly educated in the entire community. Most of them had graduated from Harvard and Yale when these institutions were still solidly sound in orthodox Biblical theology. These were remarkable men, not only skilled in Old Testament and Reformation Theology, but in other fields of knowledge, in a broad liberal education. Dr. Kennedy was interested in noting that the American Academy of Arts and Sciences was established primarily by these pastors in 1780.

These pastors' passion about how civil government should be ordered was evident in their sermons. Political subjects and admonitions from the pulpits were deemed most worthy subjects for sermons, and they were delivered in a manner to instruct the voter in insuring Liberty for our young nation.

Yes, of course, there were Tories who strongly objected to the Puritan views, but the ministers had their Biblical response: "Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is Liberty," and "You shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free."

They often referred to Hebrew History, which was held sacred to them. They could relate to the Hebrew children leaving the land of bondage and entering the Promise Land, and of course, to Moses receiving the Law.

By an intense study of the Hebrews, they understood that idolatry had been established in every nation of the world, by the time God raised Moses up as a deliverer of His people. Moral and social evils reigned in those cultures. There was no constitution, such as we know in America, in any other government in the world. The Israelites had ceased to worship the One True God.

That One True God used Moses to establish the means of a political religious constitution to insure Liberty, an idea of Providence in the mind of God. He would use the true religion to establish government, and then use the righteous government to protect the true religion. The Jewish lawgiver has given us the means to secure Liberty, which can be achieved in no other way. We can learn from Moses that the worship of the One True God has to be the FIRST Principle of Civil polity. Obviously, Satan's objective is to destroy that idea in our pubic square.

The Revolutionary pastors did distinguish between natural rights and civil rights. Citizens guarding their "natural" rights, must realize that righteous government, by compact or constitution, guards those rights for every man. God made a compact with Moses, Noah, and Joshua. We, who elect imperfect men to office, have a duty to limit their power and monitor their performance in office.

The greatest insight that is to be found in these early sermons is the fact that Liberty is grounded in Scripture. Randall P. Cole, author of the book, They Preached Liberty, wrote of the Puritan ministers: "They wished to conserve the best from the past, including Magna Charta, and their own colonial charters. In their opinion, the real radicals were those in the British government who were departing from the laws and traditions of old. The clergy opposed what Samuel Langdon, D. D., President of Harvard College, called the many artifices to stretch the prerogatives of the crown beyond all constitutional bounds."

Can you understand, that in opposing and resisting tyranny, they were defenders of the ancient liberties? These ministers were defending political and civil liberty, but they were also stressing the religious liberty that is only possible through education built on these ancient Truths. They were faithful to point out the obligations and the COST of liberty. Our forefathers fought a war to obtain it. My generation fought a war to preserve it. (WWII)

Before the beginning of the American Revolution, the New England clergy were pleading the cause of the African slaves. In the original draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson denounced the British government for the slave trade, but the colonies of South Carolina and Georgia succeeded in striking this from the Declaration. In reading these sermons, many of them strongly preached against slavery.

Meet Jonathan Mayhew (1729-1766)

Jonathan Mayhew, this New England minister, was declared to be "The Father of Civil and Religious Liberty in Massachusetts and America" by Robert Treat Payne, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Payne was also an Attorney General of the United States at one time. Mayhew, recognized for his convictions, writings, and influence by James Otis, John Adams, and Samuel Adams, all his intimate friends, was also widely read by the patriot statesmen of his day.

Twenty six years before the Declaration was penned, Mayhew proclaimed, "Nothing can well be imagined more directly contrary to common sense than to suppose that millions of people should be subjected to the arbitrary, precarious pleasure of a single man, – who has naturally no superiority over them in point of authority, – so that their estates, and everything that is valuable in life, and even their lives also, shall be absolutely at his disposal, if he happens to be wanton and capricious enough to demand them."

In 1754, Mayhew's Election Sermon included this challenge: "God forbid that any son of New England should prove such a profane Esau as to sell his birthright! Our ancestors, though not perfect and infallible in all respects, were a religious, brave, and virtuous set of men, whose love of liberty, civil and religious, brought them from their native land into the American deserts. By their generous care it is, under the smiles of a gracious providence, that we now have a goodly heritage."

In 1750, warning against unlimited submission, Mayhew declared, "Tyranny brings ignorance and brutality with it. It degrades men from their higher rank into the class of brutes. It dampens their spirits, it suppresses arts; it extinguishes every spark of noble ardor and generosity in the breasts of those enslaved by it; it makes naturally strong and great minds feeble and little, and triumphs over the ruins of virtue and humanity."

In no other country of World History, has there been a government like ours. In early America, civil and religious liberty were combined in harmony for a season. In Charles Turner's Election Sermon of 1773, he warns the patriots, "Religious Liberty is so blended with civil, that if one fails, it is not expected that the other will continue."

In Ebenezer Bridge's Election Sermon of 1767, he declares, "As to religion and religious privileges, what people in the whole world are so highly favored as our nation? We have the Gospel, the freest use and the fullest enjoyment of it."

The fundamental principles of the Hebrew and the American Constitutions are prominently republican. There is great power placed with confidence in the people, assuming they are people of the Judeo-Christian faith. There is a great need for people of faith to read, research, and embrace our Christian History, if Liberty can be preserved in our nation.

Minister Jonathan Mayhew declared in 1754, "Rulers derive their power from God, and are ordained to be his ministers for good." This charge was emphasized in many election sermons over decades by New England ministers to declare admonitions to those elected to office.

We have an evil force in our nation whose objective is to tear down the law of Moses, which has been the source of our own liberty in America. This article implores your careful reading, followed by action in the public square to preserve both religious and civil Liberty. Prayer is essential, but becoming informed, is as well. My prayer is for the ministers to "Proclaim Liberty Throughout the Land" once again.

"God never gives men up to be slaves till they lose their national virtue, and abandon themselves to slavery." ~ Rev. Richard Salter of Mansfield, Connecticut, Election Sermons, 1768

But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. ~ James 1:22

And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord; and great shall be the peace of thy children. ~ Isaiah 54:13

How Do You 'Conquer A Culture?' Focus On a Nation's Children...

Bobbie Ames - Wednesday, June 01, 2016

...and introduce secular sex education

Patrick J. Buchanan, author of The Death of the West, wrote about, exposing the De-Christianizing of America.

"In the Great War of 1914-1918, Catholic France fought Catholic Austria and Protestant Germany fought Protestant England. Nine million Christian soldiers marched to their deaths. Yet, only Orthodox Russia succumbed to a Communist revolution, and that was more coup d'etat than mass conversion. A prominent Italian communist disciple of Marx, Antonio Gramsci, concluded that two thousand years of Christianity had made the soul of man impenetrable to Marxism. Before the West could be conquered for Communism, its faith must be uprooted. But how could it be achieved?"

Marx's disciples were everywhere and had varying ideas for spreading Communism. One was the Hungarian, George Lukas, who was recognized as a Marxist theorist to rival Marx himself. Intent on overturning the values of a Christian culture, he instituted a radical sex education program in Hungarian schools. Children were brainwashed, instructed in "free love" and in the "irrelevance of religion." Monogamy was treated as "outmoded." Licentiousness was promoted among women to further destroy the core institution of Christianity.

Antonio Gramsci, whom scholars have declared to be the most outstanding Marxist of the 20th Century, fled to Russia after Mussolini's march on Rome in 1922. He carefully observed the Russian people, and came to the conclusion that Leninism had failed. While the people had obediently complied with the political power, in their hearts they were not committed to Communism. Their homeland, their old faith, and their Mother Russia, still had their hearts. Observing all of this, Gramsci concluded that the only things holding these people back from Communism was their Christian faith. After all, the world had been saturated with Christianity for 2,000 years, and many people had zeal for the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Gramsci concluded that Christianity must be destroyed across the West, yes, Marxists MUST de-Christianize the West. He returned to his homeland, Italy, hoping to lead the Communist forces there, but he was imprisoned by Mussolini. While in prison he devised a plan and wrote about it in his Prison Notebooks. It actually was a blueprint for the destruction of Western Civilization. The cultural revolution, that this writer has witnessed over a lifetime, could have come right from Gramsci's notebook.

Gramsci's idea was NOT to seize military power in the nation initially. Instead, he believed that the culture could be destroyed from within, and then the nation would "fall into the Communists' laps like ripened fruit." To change the culture, he saw it as a long path ahead, through the institutions of the culture: the arts, theater, schools, colleges, seminaries, newspapers and magazines. One by one, each one would be a target to be politicized into an agency of revolution. Over time, with the new education model for children, he saw them educated to understand, and then to welcome the revolution.

Gramsci urged his fellow Communists to find Western intellectuals who shared his contempt for Christianity, and to share a zeal to transform education in the West. Lenin failed after 70 years of terror. His regime did ultimately collapse, without the destruction of Christianity. Gramsci and his fellow Communists set up The Frankfort School in Moscow to promote his theories. A director named Max Horkheimer, began retraining Communists in western cultural terms, to infiltrate the institutions: the family, the schools, the church, the public squares. The old military battlefield manuals were discarded and new action manuals were developed to undermine the institutions. America was certainly to be a prime target, as well as other Western nations.

Victory was assured if Biblical Christianity could be stamped out. Yes, it would be non-violent hopefully, and would require time, patience and determination. They were confident that the institutions mentioned would be captured by their trained allies and agents of the revolution.

In the 1990's, The Frankfort School came to America. With the help from Columbia University, they were welcomed into New York City. They were very proud of their goal, to undermine the culture of the country that had given them refuge. One particular book published by the Frankfort School, The Authoritarian Personality, placed its emphasis on Cultural Determination. Targeted is the patriarchal family and the culture's middle class.

If we can fast forward from the beginning of this new revolution, we will focus on The Culture War with respect to the children. The sexual revolution is destroying the children and their future. Statistics on divorce, out of wedlock births, abortions, single parent homes, child abuse, violent crimes, drug use, teen suicide, promiscuity, falling tests scores, all paint a picture of tragedy for this generation of American children. Gramsci's revolution continues today in America's institutions, and throughout the West.

As an example of one of the most destructive movements in America is the matter of distorted Human Sexuality.

To assist a ministry in combating this distortion, I was hired by Protect America's Children, founded by Anita Bryant in Miami, Florida. In 1980, it was moved to Selma, Alabama, where Anita placed her children in our Christian school. I worked full time in the ministry, whose sole aim was to protect America's children from sexual and other abuses.

The most notable authority of Human Sexuality was Dr. Melvin Anchell, M. D. , a brilliant physician who had a long and successful career in psychoanalysis and general medicine. He had written five books on the subjects relating to sexuality, sex education, and pornography. Acclaimed by the National Association of Psychoanalysis and The American Boards, he has been generous in testifying in court, and speaking over the nation and abroad. Dr. Anchell graciously served as a consultant to Protect America's Children with great generosity and commitment to America's children and to many families suffering abuse. He had great favor with his testimonies, and it was clearly the Grace of God coming through his testimony in court, and in his writing.

His 1991 book, published by The Hoffman Center for the Family is titled, What's Wrong With Sex Education. He looks at his subject from a professional medical standpoint, and speaks from this podium. He sees no conflict between this position and his deep faith in the Scriptures of his Jewish heritage.

Discussing Sex Education, Dr. Anchell is clear about the "harm these classes cause the students and society."

He states three truths that are inherent and apply to all people throughout the world.

1. The first established truth is that sex is an intimate affair. Two people in love seek privacy. Hopefully, there is a marriage between one man and one woman, as God created it to be.

Dr. Anchell condemns modern sex education in schools. He writes, "students are desensitized to the intimate nature of physical sex. In any classroom discussion of sexuality, students must openly discuss their most intimate sexual feelings, and at the same time, become involved with similar sexual thoughts of their fellow classmates."

2. The second psychoanalytic fact is that in humans, the sexual instinct is composed of two currents: an affectionate current and a physical current. The affectionate (love) current is as important, if not more so, than the physical component.

For human sexuality to be fulfilling, these two components must come together. The Creator intended this for marriage. In school classrooms, the physical is emphasized, while the affectionate needs of everyone are damned by what Dr. Anchell called "faint praise."

He further notes that the very teaching of sex education in the classroom "publicly coarsens and severely diminishes the affectionate nature and privacy essential."

3. The third basic fact that he deals with is the normal progression of development before the child reaches adulthood. That normal progression should not be interfered with. Planned Parenthood is a chief proponent of radical sex education programs, and Dr. Anchell states that they are "not in accord with normal growth processes of sexual development. Their proposed programs make it virtually impossible for the students to grow into sexually mature adults." He documents in his books the reasons he believes that today's Planned Parenthood programs cause irreparable harm to students. To fully expose Planned Parenthoods agenda and what their teaching manuals contain, is too shockingly obscene to put in this article, but is well documented.

Many respected psychologists whom Dr. Anchell knew and quoted, were in agreement with his positions. They agreed that sexual preoccupation in the lives of your children will cause sexual difficulties in adulthood.

In reviewing things of importance in the life of a 6-12 year old, Dr. Anchell makes an interesting observation. "The educability of children is not all that is at stake when latency is disturbed by classroom sex interferences. For example during latency, some redirected sexual energy is used for development of compassion. Compassion is essential for the control of cruelty in the human personality. Compassion is one of the elements that separates man from beast."

The sex indoctrination hampers achieving self-government at all age levels. The teaching hampers social, cultural, and personal achievement.

For those of us who are Bible-based in our world and life view, our concerns for our children involve chastity, abstinence, virginity, all as a sacred trust

awaiting marriage. This is a covenant between one man and one woman, hopefully, for a life-time commitment.

A great theologian and educator, J. Gresham Machen, said long ago, "If you give the bureaucrats the children, you may as well give them everything else as well." He was speaking of the moral and intellectual decline as the federal government continued to reach for more and more control of

American education and everything else. Look at the grave injustice to children, parents, and the future of Liberty in our nation. By facing this truth of what has transpired and what is happening now, perhaps many more people will wake up to the dangers and make their convictions heard, to rescue our children from this tragedy.

Recommended reading:

The Closing of the American Mind by Allan Bloom, published by Simon and Schuster.

The Death of the West by Patrick J. Buchanan, published by Thomas Dunne Books; St. Martin Press.

What's Wrong With Sex Education? by Melvin Anchell, M.D., published by The Hoffman Center for the Family.


Bobbie Ames - Sunday, May 01, 2016

In the introduction to the 1828 Dictionary, distributed by the Foundation for American Christian Education, Rosalie Slater has chosen to include some selections from Noah Webster's Masters Thesis from Yale College. Her selections in the preface are carefully chosen to guide us in the use of this volume. Many people consider the 1828 Dictionary as the second most valuable book in the home library, next only to the Holy Bible. This writer certainly does. It contains the language of Liberty, and the definitions are Bible related, when possible.

“The Declaration of Independence,” July 4, 1776, served to announce to the world the separation of the American colonies from Great Britain, their establishment as “free and independent states,” and their “firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence.” To this ringing declaration to faith in God, was affixed the signatures of the 56 men who mutually pledged to “each other” the their “Lives,” their “Fortunes,” and their “sacred Honor.”

It took seven long years of the American Revolution to “dissolve the Political Bands” which connected them to England, and “six more years before the document detailing the Christian philosophy of American Government took shape and form. But political separation alone would not suffice to keep the young republic on her Christian Constitutional course. If American Liberty was to be complete, all mooring from the old world must be cast off...especially those that might bind her in alien philosophies of government, and hence to educational systems lending them support.”

“This country must in some future time, be as distinguished by her literary improvements, as she is by the liberality of civil and ecclesiastical constitutions. Europe has grown old in folly, corruption, and tyranny. In that country, laws are perverted, manners are licentious, literature is declining, and human nature debased. For America, in her infancy, to adopt the present maxims of the old world, would be to stamp the wrinkles of decrepit age upon the bloom of youth, and to plant the seeds of decay in a vigorous constitution.”

“It is the business of Americans to select the wisdom of all nations, as the basis of her constitution, to avoid their errors, to prevent the introduction of foreign vices and corruptions, and check the career of her own,... to promote virtue and patriotism,... to embellish and improve the sciences,... to diffuse a uniformity and purity of language,... to add superior dignity to this infant Empire and to human nature.”

Webster's statements were included in his dictionary and in his translation of the Holy Bible. His vision, his research, his writing and his passion for America’s uniqueness, was used by God to prepare this one individual, who would give birth to American Education. In God's Providence, it has been the means to preserve Liberty until well into the 1900's.

How God prepared Noah Webster for this monumental task is fascinating. He was a descendant on his mother's side of Governor William Bradford of “Plimoth Plantation.” His great, great grandfather was the governor of Connecticut in 1656. With such a devout heritage, it is no surprise that he would write: “The Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government, ought to be instructed. No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis for any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.”

Webster was certainly not alone in his views. The Founding Fathers of the nation made clear the relationship of Christianity to American government and liberty. Their dream was to extend the blessings of liberty to all people through the liberating gospel of Jesus Christ.

In recognizing the role of American Government, Webster was careful to limit the jurisdiction of government when it came to Education and the Family. He wrote: “The foundation of all free government and of all social order must be laid in families and in the discipline of youth. The Education for youth, an employment of more consequence than making laws and preaching the gospel, because it lays the foundation on which both law and gospel rest for success....”

It is a fascinating read to learn how God prepared this young man for his life's work of the “founding of America’s distinctively Christian Educational System.” Growing up in New Haven, Connecticut on a family farm, he and his siblings were happy to be diligent laborers and prayed for good weather, because a good crop of corn harvested in good weather would provide for the winter months. The corn was grown to eat, of course, but primarily for export to ship to England. However, when night came, while the brothers, Abram and Charles, slept nearby, Noah could be found with his small candle burning brightly by his bed. Books were scarce, but words and a printed page had always fascinated this young boy. In 1771, books were rare in the colonies, but everyone had a family Bible. The local pastor probably had 20 or more books, but most of them were in Latin.

Probably, on a weekly basis, a family might see the newspaper from Hartford, and an annual Ames Almanack at Christmas time. It brought weather information and tid-bits of things, such as maxims, poetry, etc.

In the little school house by the church, there was a scarcity of books as well, but usually had a speller from which the small child could learn his letters, a primer and a Psalter. In 1764, Noah was six years old, and already fascinated with letters, words, and spelling.

At age 13, when the fields and harvesting was done, Noah went back to the one room school house. Boys usually did not continue their schooling after age 14. He walked four miles to school. Without books available, many of Noah's questions remained unanswered. In the following spring, a new minister came to town, Dr. Nathan Perkins. He had graduated from Princeton and had many books for this time. Dr. Perkins took a great interest in Noah Webster. He welcomed him into his study and loaned him books, first of all, a Latin Grammar. Novels and story books as we know them today, hardly existed in Noah's childhood, certainly not in the colonies.

After serious study with Dr. Perkins over many months, Noah decided that he MUST go to college. He discussed it with his pastor and his father. He found that Yale college had 2500 books in its library. That set on fire Noah's ambition for college. After another year of preparation with his minister and his work in the Latin Grammar School, he was almost 16, and determined to enter Yale in September. With parents willing to place a mortgage on the family property, Noah had the determination to prove its worth.Yale college had three buildings, and those not in good condition. On the edge of Long Island Sound, New Haven was a lovely town of fine old trees, and an atmosphere of “quiet dignity.”

Noah plowed into the academic life of Yale. There were 150 students, and forty boys in his freshman class. Noah displayed leadership ability from the start. He was well aware of his responsibility. He was attending on borrowed money, and would prove his worth to his beloved parents. During the summer months, he would be back on the farm with his hoe.

These were turbulent times in the mid 1770's. There was a universal demand for Liberty, and in 1776, Thomas Jefferson took a pen and paper, and wrote the formal statement that we know as “The Declaration of Independence.” It was adopted on July 4, 1776, by the Continental Congress. Noah Webster was thrilled and now he wanted to learn everything he could about the 56 men who had signed the document. He learned that 14 were lawyers and 12 jurists, which was really much the same thing. He began an interest in law as a possible career path, and over time, would add that to his many accomplishments.

Due to the war, college would be in recess for months at a time, and Noah would be back on the farm... always reading, always studying. When the new president, Dr. Ezra Stiles, came to Yale, he decided to bring back the boys who were too young to go to war. The New Republic would need educated men and Dr. Stiles was there to see to it. He was extremely versatile and well educated.

Thirty of Noah's classmates returned to graduate. Some had left for the war. Noah's graduating address proved to be the most impressive one of all. Upon returning home after his graduation, Noah learned that the war had ruined his family financially, and his parents could not help him with law school. In a matter of just days, Noah had a position of teaching in the village school at Glastonbury, Connecticut. His class at Yale had spent one summer there previously. The children loved him at the school, but the lack of books was the chief problem. There was only one spelling book for 50 children. In the cruel winter, of 1779-1780, Noah walked four miles to school. It made Noah think of General Washington and his troops at Valley Forge.

Nights found him deep into his law books, and he passed the Bar in April, 1781. However, education was still his passion, and especially for American children. His first to be published textbook, titled The American Instructor, was a spelling book, but filled with inspiration for patriotism and for the courage of Christian character. Simple early phonics were included as well. He took it to Philadelphia, and after a name change and a delay, The Spelling Book was published in 1783 under the title, A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. Later, millions of copies would be published as The American Spelling Book. This was the beginning of Noah Webster’s school text books, which would form the foundation of America's unique education in all of world History.

One writer has described Noah as “the man on horseback,” for all the travel he did, from colony to colony, with his speller. Among his travels was a visit to Mt.Vernon, hosted by General Washington. By this time, not only The American Spelling Book, but a Reader was in print.

He took a 27 day sailing trip from Baltimore to Charlestown, South Carolina, and was successful in having his textbooks adopted for the entire colony. In addition, he had now written the History text which told of America's founding and early history. Over a period of one hundred years, one hundred million copies of Webster’s dictionary and texts were literally worn out from faithful use. From the pen of Noah Webster, American children, from north to south and from east to west, have learned “their letters, their morality, and their patriotism." Noah Webster was America's Schoolmaster.

When American colonies were first settled, each group brought their old world philosophies. Some were indeed Christians, such as the Pilgrims in Plymouth. Some were more cultural Christians, but not Orthodox in Bible terms. Some were Humanists or fans of other philosophies, mixed together. Webster was very aware of the threats from foreign shores. He made sure that his textbooks and the dictionary addressed those threats. Thankfully, he lived to see the fruit of his labors. Prominent men, such as John Jay, offered support and encouragement.

Looking back over his remarkable life, remembering the direct and divine operation of the heart, Webster wrote: “I could no longer question or have a doubt respecting the Calvinistic and Christian doctrines of regeneration, of free grace, and of the Sovereignty of God... I was struck by the 26th verse in John 14, ‘But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said to you.’ ”

America's History is the story of Individual Liberty as no other nation has ever known. It is a legacy to which every American child is entitled. The Christian Constitutional Republic has been blessed by God as no other nation in world history has been blessed. God used one man, Noah Webster, to set the Truth in textbooks for generations of early America children. One hundred million copies of his textbooks were circulated.

He stressed that it all begins in the Family – the family living out the Biblical mandates of Scripture. Do we have enough families today, to embrace that Biblical order in their home, to cherish and live out once again, “life and liberty,” as generations of our forefathers dared to dream?

America's Invasion By Socialism: The Road to Despotic Power!

Bobbie Ames - Friday, April 01, 2016

The polity and government of these United States is original. Let us say it again, Original and Peculiar. It has two great elements of divisions of power:

a. that of the States exercising local Self-Government, and

b. that of the Nation, formed by a voluntary Union of States.

The motto on the Great Seal of the Nation gives that origin: E Pluribus Unum, confirming that our beginning is found in the 13 colonies and their voluntary union. Let us not forget that their union was based on that idea of local self-government, which developed the State, and the idea of Union, which developed the Nation.

The idea of the individual citizen being totally free to pursue the opportunities of his life is completely unrecognized in cultures where centralization prevails. American Liberty is unique in History.

In Ancient England, many people dreamed of such local rule and liberty, but only a few assemblies were able to frame the laws under which they would live.

The ruling monarchs deprived the people of the power of local rule, but many continued to dream of liberty and just laws. Christians, in particular, had the basis of the Word of God to justify their dreams, and considered their aspirations as not only the advancement of the Christian Faith, but as the honor due to the King and Queen.

The Pilgrim Story is one of the most revered of all in American History, and justly so. Their Covenant signed aboard the Mayflower ship provided for a code of laws, a public authority, as in a local government. In early New England, the local political life was built up in towns, while in Virginia, in counties. In Virginia, political life had a distinct aristocratic type of society, and in New England, more of a democratic society.

Our ancestors built this system of government on the Rule of Law, which was based on Morality and Christianity. Not every citizen was a professing Christian, but the vast majority realized that no government could be secure, nor could citizens be safe, without Moral Absolutes in practice, and codified in the Rule of Law.

It is interesting that the early citizens of Connecticut created a little Republic by the federation of independent towns, and sovereignty still remained at the town level. It is perhaps our earliest model of what would be a republican form of government.

The Founders and Framers of our Constitution shared the love of liberty above all else, and the passion to protect it. The Cause of Liberty and Justice surpassed any and all obligations to the King and Queen of England. Their concepts of Justice came from the Bible.

Moving ahead from the 1800's to the 20th Century, we are stunned at the changes in our own culture. It is a mystery to many citizens who have not recognized the seriousness of the disease invading our nation, which we now call Socialism. Modern Socialism can be traced back to the days of the French Revolution in the mid 1800's, the Russian Empire of 1917, China in the 1940's, and Cambodia in the 1970's.

Since the mid 20th Century, Socialism has reared its head in many Western nations. In America, it was first introduced to us as "Progressivism." These people work within the system to gain their programs, one at a time: be it universal health care, or free government (K-12) education for all. While Socialism was largely accepted in Europe, its first cousin, Communism, was not. When the Communist Manifesto was issued, it was obvious that the main target was against Christianity and Morality, by the overthrow of the social and political order birthed by that Faith.

The Manifesto lists ten planks to advance Communism.

1, Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.

2. A heavy progressive or gradual income tax.

3. Abolition of all rights of inheritance.

4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.

5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State Capital, and an exclusive monopoly.

6. Centralization of the means of Communication and transport in the hands of the State.

7. Extensions of factories and instruments of productions owned by the State; the bringing in of cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally, carried out with a common plan.

8. Equal liability for all to work. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.

9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of all distinction between town and country by a more equable distribution of the populace over the country.

10. Free education for all children in government public schools. Abolition of all child labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, etc.

Already implemented in America are the following:

Note No. 2 from Manifesto: our now heavy progressive income tax in America.

Note No. 5 from Manifesto: our Central Bank, monopolistic, created in 1913 through the Federal Reserve Act.

Note No. 6 from Manifesto: the radical changes in control of communication, transportation, and media.

Note No. 10 from Manifesto: Government schools are educating about 97% of our children with School To Work being a high priority of Socialists, as well as Common Core and it’s federal mandates.

Yes, we can acknowledge that Socialism has come to America. The Socialist Agenda is clear. They oppose the ideals of American's founding, and oppose Constitutional Government as was created in our nation.

In the lifetime of this writer, the progressives have managed to invade every aspect of what we traditionally call the "private sector." Todays socialist candidates believe that Socialism can be achieved by popular consent. Gradually over the past decades, they have achieved the 40 hour work week, the minimum wage, federal control over banking, agriculture, manufacturing, health care, and government subsidies for college. They are well on their way to declare what they will proclaim as Victory.

Socialism as an Economic order is a failure. It is retrogressive, not progressive in a positive sense. Examples of failures are Medicare, Medicaid, and Obamacare. All stifle free enterprise.

The positions of the Socialists against Morality include attacks on the nuclear family, such as their advocating sexual license, abortion, homosexuality, and the sexualization of children.

An excellent writer and researcher of Socialism, Charles Scaliger, quotes Alexis de Tocqueville, a French legislator at the time of the French Revolution. This Legislator gave worthy advice, following the overthrow of the Royals. He identified Socialism and warned of three key ideologies of the movement invading France.

1. The appeal to the material passions of man.

2. An attack on the principle of private property, believing that it is one of the "ills of the world."

3. Scorn for personal liberty and scorn for individual reason, a complete contempt for the individual.

Tocqueville told his fellow legislators that "Socialism has contempt for human liberty, to the point where, were I to attempt to sum up what Socialism is, I would say that it was simply a new system of serfdom."

Tocqueville was popular in America due to his travels here and his praise for our Christian Constitutional Republic. He was highly regarded as a political philosopher on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and we would do well to heed his words today.

What Tocqueville observed in America was reverence for the Rule of Law. For 227 years of living under the Constitution and Bill of Rights, we have been blessed as no other nation on earth. We have to be vigilent, however, because not all amendments to the Constitution have promoted Liberty. For example, the 17th amendment stripped political power from the State Legislatures, which had selected the U. S. Senators for each State. The 16th amendment gave the government power to tax personal incomes directly and has led to the present day IRS. The creation of the Federal Reserve Act and the private bank, operate beyond the limits and control of the American government elected officials.

The Constitution and the Bill of Rights served us well until Socialism invaded our land. Those foundational documents are based on the philosophy of the 1776 Declaration of Independence, which asserts that our rights are God given, and that governments are instituted to secure these God given rights. It further states that when the government fails to secure these rights, it is the right of the people to take action: to alter or abolish this form of government.

The U. S. Constitution is the Rule of Law for America, and it was and is based on the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson once said, "If a nation expects to be ignorant and expects what never was and never will be." Today is the day to be informed and involved in restoring the Constitution as the Rule of Law. It is the day to cherish and restore Religious Liberty to our land. Now is the time to become active in the Public Square, to be a responsible, informed citizen in the voting booth in 2016, and to diligently PRAY for revival and for the restoration of our beloved nation.

So help us God!

Quotes from Alexis de Tocqueville

“Nothing is more wonderful than the art of being free, but nothing is harder to learn how to use, than freedom.”

“Liberty cannot be established without morality, nor morality without faith.”

For more information and understanding of the U. S. Constitution, we recommend The Christian History of the Constitution, published by the Foundation for American Christian Education, in Chesapeake, Va. On the web at

The writings of researcher, Charles Scaliger, on Socialism, can be ordered through The New American, P.O. Box 8040, Appleton, WI 54912.

The Origin of Liberty in Government Established by the U.S. Constitution

Bobbie Ames - Tuesday, March 01, 2016

With the death of Justice Antonin Scalia, the court is now equally divided between the Constitutionalists and those who oppose traditional interpretation of our Law. With recent drastic changes in American culture, there are cases pending before the high court at the present time which could literally further destroy the moral absolutes in our culture. As of now, the court is equally divided between "right and left." There is great speculation about Justice Scalia's replacement on the bench.

Immigration and the aggressive Refugee Resettlement Movement is moving swiftly at the present time, and the case before the court could reverse a lower court ruling to delay the Obama plan.

Religious non-profits are seeking an exemption from the Affordable Care Act's mandate that employers must pay for the cost of collective bargaining, even if they object to the union demands.

Affirmative Action, long a hot topic in university admission programs that take race into consideration, will come under scrutiny by the court.

Perhaps the most controversial case challenging the Court will be the Abortion issue. Reproductive Rights have been front and center since 1992. The "rights of a woman and her own body" have clouded the issue of a "right to life." Will the Court place restrictions on physicians and facilities to protect that most fundamental right of all, which is Life?

The real issue is it all concerns the Constitution as the Supreme Rule of Law in America. While our citizens have enjoyed freedom and liberty since 1788, it has not always been so with any other people, in any other country, on any other continent on the globe. This is an amazing story.

Men tried to establish a government for centuries before 1788, but their experiments never produced freedom and liberty for the individual. The cycle moved from a mob, to a monarchy, sometimes to democracy, more often to tyranny, to autocracy, or feudalism. None brought the promise of " life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." No indeed, each one brought suffering, oppression, misery, and most often violence. Tyranny and military despotism crushed the hearts and ideals of men, and left them with no security. There was no regard, or even recognition of an individual's God-given "rights."

The English, more than any other people, understood their own history. They knew well the oppression of their kings, and preserved the Magna Carta in their hearts, while it was ignored and denied in the daily life of England's ruling classes.

We, as Americans, truly claim that the Magna Carta is the basis of American Liberty. Behind that parchment lies the history that you and I have enjoyed. The story of this history has been denied to generations in America's government schools since the early 1900's. This sad, but glorious history, belongs to every American as it relates to the long and relentless struggle by a brave and united people against the misrule of kings.

I have visited numerous times that meadow at Runnymede, on a little island in the River Thames, where King John of England was given the choice of a "pen or the sword." He chose the pen, and signed the Great Charter, rather than the sword which would cost his life. It was an admission of using arbitrary rule, and his acceptance of limited powers. In that meadow in June, the year 1215, they saw that Law was made Supreme in England.

For the first time in History, the Magna Carta provided the restraint of written law to apply to all men. This marked a decisive step toward what would become Constitutional Government in the future.

a. Their rights were clarified.

b. No one was to be dispossessed of his property except by due process of law, or by a judgment of his peers.

c. A trial by jury was assured, with the right of an appeal.

d. Fair taxation was assured by consent of the people's representatives.

That last provision will of course remind us of the slogan of the American Revolution: "No Taxation Without Representation."

The Great Charter established four fundamental principles into law that live today. They are:

1. A king must rule in accordance with the law and desires of his people.

2. Government is a contract, with each party accountable, and called to account.

3. Individual rights are clearly stated.

4. The king has specific restrictions.

400 years later, King Charles I violated the ancient rights and principles of the Magna Carta. The people acted. On June 7, 1628, Parliament withheld money until Charles was forced to sign "The Petition of Rights."

Continuing to Ignore the "Rights" cost Charles his life on the headman's block in 1649, and the English monarchy was not restored until 1660.

Those principles in the "Petition of Rights" are a vital part of our United States Constitution:

1. Taxes are levied only with the consent of Parliament.

2. Troops are no longer boarded in private homes.

3. Martial Law cannot be declared in time of peace.

4. Citizens have the right of trial by jury of one's peers.

England lived another 28 years under the peace through the rule of law, until King James II attempted an absolute monarchy, which brought his abdication. The Revolution of 1688 settled the power of Parliament and English Law. Parliament elected William and Mary as rulers. Political liberty triumphed in England with the "The Bill of Rights " in 1689.

The influence and indeed the very principles in the "Bill of Rights" and "The Petition of Rights" are expressed in the first eight amendments to our United States Constitution.

In the 1600's, when these events were taking place in England, the founders of the American colonies followed their conscience to seek liberty elsewhere. It meant facing uncertainty, privation and sufferings, but they conquered a wilderness, and reached their goal of freedom and liberty in a New World.

The Founding Fathers of our nation knew their history, and learned the lessons of history. One of the greatest tragedies of our day is that recent generations of Americans do not know their own history. If they did, there would be a public outcry to protect Liberty in every public square, and in every voting booth.

The Founding Fathers learned History reading the writings of the men who fought for liberty. Among them were John Locke, William Blackstone, and the French philosopher, Baron de Montesquieu. Providentially used were the political sermons of John Witherspoon, Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, Samuel Davies, Jonathan Mayhewn and so many others.

John Locke was the leading philosopher of the Whig Party in England. His vision for a government was outlined in his Treaties of Government published in 1690. According to Locke, the "God given rights of man are "life, liberty, and property." To protect his God-given rights, man must form a community by a social contract. The ends of political society are to have a uniform interpretation of the law, to establish those rights given to the individual of "life, liberty, and property."

The first 8 Amendments to the Constitution set forth those rights, privileges, and immunities.

Baron de Montesquieu approved of the English system, but he added to it, something that has been dramatic and essential: The Separation of Powers.

We see the wisdom of his promoting the division of power into the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government as set forth in our Constitution. Sadly, we see the tragic damage of abuse and overreach in the various branches of government, in our nation, at every level, due to violating the Constitution.

Sir William Blackstone, in his Commentary of The Laws of England, analyzed and clearly set forth what would become the basis of American Law. Every signer of the Declaration of Independence, and those at the Constitutional Convention had internalized Blackstone's writing. Righteous law was a sacred trust to them, as it should be to us.

The writings and lives of James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and his son, John Quincy Adams, and so many others, verify their understanding and commitment to the Rule of Law. Locke and all the others mentioned above, vowed that these rights could not be deprived to any man, because they were given by God.

Could it be that any group of people have actually lived out such a faith and practice? After many decades of studying History and visiting Plymouth, Massachusetts so many times, I am still inspired by the lives and history of the Pilgrims. I have written about them before, and their Mayflower Compact.

No people have ever displayed more Christian courage and charity than this group of Christians seeking freedom of religion. Their faith and persistence saw them through every tragedy and every challenge. Their "Compact" written and signed aboard the Mayflower, was a political covenant in harmony with their religious doctrine which guided their relationships and their world view. Even in a wilderness, with a small group of people, law was necessary.

Under the American Constitution, the cause of human freedom has been served. Today, that document is in danger because it is no longer sacred in the hearts of many American citizens. Too many who are in elected offices do not revere this document. Its future in our land will determine our freedom and our liberties. It will determine our right to life, the expression of our thoughts and values, our freedom of religion, our rights of assembly, petition and action, and our property rights and civil liberty.

In my library, I have a recently republished book of Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, 1730-1805. It contains one thousand pages of these political sermons. Today, the pulpits of America are silent concerning our great God-given heritage of law, which is clearly based on God's Word.

For 30 years, Justice Antonin Scalia was faithful to his charge to protect our God given rights through faithful loyalty to the Constitution. His intellect, his brilliance and his personal faith shines through his faithfulness in the following words.

Quotes from Justice Antonin Scalia

"It is of overwhelming importance ... who it is that rules me. Today's decree says that my Ruler, and the Ruler of 320 million Americans coast ­to­ coast, is a majority of the nine lawyers on the Supreme Court. ... This practice of constitutional revision by an unelected committee of nine, always accompanied ... by extravagant praise of liberty, robs the People of the most important liberty they asserted in the Declaration of Independence and won in the Revolution of 1776: the freedom to govern themselves." Obergefell v. Hodges.

"Except as limited by a constitutional prohibition agreed to by the People, the States are free to adopt whatever laws they like, even those that offend the esteemed Justices' 'reasoned judgment.' A system of government that makes the People subordinate to a committee of nine unelected lawyers does not deserve to be called a democracy. Obergefell v. Hodges.

"[T]he enshrinement of constitutional rights necessarily takes certain policy choices off the table. Undoubtedly some think that the Second Amendment is outmoded in a society where our standing army is the pride of our Nation, where well­-trained police forces provide personal security, and where gun violence is a serious problem. That is perhaps debatable, but what is not debatable is that it is not the role of this Court to pronounce the Second Amendment extinct." D.C. v. Heller.

Two Visions of Government Today in America

Bobbie Ames - Monday, February 01, 2016

"When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; But when the wicked beareth rule. the people mourn." Proverbs 29:2

Liberty is in dire peril today in America. What was birthed as a "land of the free and the home of the brave" has become a nation of ever increasing power taken from the local and state governments to the national government. This is absolutely against the intent of the United States Constitution. The transfer of power has decreased our individual liberty and ability to be self-governed. The end result of such political power is always TYRANNY.

This article today is to appeal to God's people, His Remnant, to take back the reigns of local and state government, to come against Socialism and Communism, which have advanced to the detriment of your and my liberty.

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Our Founding Fathers had a transcendent (surpassing others) view of civil government, and how, under a Biblical concept of law and justice, mankind could live under Biblical law in a civil and just government. Our Constitution is the greatest example of a government document designed for that very purpose.

Our forefathers referred to our Creator as the "supreme and just Ruler of the Universe." Our Declaration of Independence stresses it as well, that we are endowed by our Creator with "inherent and inalienable rights; among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

Additionally, governments are to obtain their rights from "the consent of the governed." The "governed" were and are the citizens of 50 democratic republics, holding the power of the vote.

Understanding the sinful nature of mankind, the Founding Fathers warned about men with power desiring a government to destroy these ends of Life, Liberty, and Property. They warned that citizens must rise up to resist, alter, or abolish such efforts.

Because my life has been spent in Education, and Biblical Christianity, I have observed the dramatic changes in American Education, which have conditioned several generations to accept the "New World Order."

For the early centuries, American school children were taught true History. They read and reread how people came to America to search for religious freedom. They read the tearful stories of the American Revolution when those patriots fought a war to escape tyranny.

It has been nearly a century since true History was put aside in public schools and replaced with Social Studies. John Dewey's dream of Industrial Education has been realized and that has served to further divide the population into two classes of people. To concentrate on preparing the "socialized worker" for his station in life, the richness of the Old Liberal Arts Education had to be sacrificed. But without that education, how can Johnny and Mary ever learn about their past, and about the greatest experiment in government in all of human History? America's Christian Constitutional Republic was crafted with the Biblical teaching of man, law, government, and above all, personal Salvation by Grace alone.

Socialists cannot bear to have a government based on individual rights, with checks and balances such as were providentially put into our Constitution. No, today, their marxist view is that the individuals must be "absorbed" with the group: the work force.

Common Core and other socialist intent is to re-educate people to accept the New World Order. Another detriment in this intent is to weaken the Armed Forces and every aspect of our national defense.

I recently read of a teacher who had taught 35 years, in both public and private schools, who found that nearly all of the students believed a Marxist concept of "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs," and which they generally accepted without question. They were thoroughly brainwashed in Socialism when they arrived at his class. That teacher took that as a challenge to inform and to awaken them.

2016 is a critical year in America. Every vote will count as never before. The percentage of Americans voting in recent elections is abysmal. We must take this seriously and become active.

My studies with Francis Schaeffer in America and in Europe years ago, were life changing for me as an educator. He exposed the impact of the worldview shift taking place in Europe and America at a rapid pace. The new worldview shifted from a Christian worldview, to the idea that the final reality is impersonal matter, or energy shaped in its modern form by chance. No human being can even estimate the damage that Darwin's theory of Evolution has brought to the classrooms of America, and to generations living under such darkness.

The rejection of Biblical authority has been at the very basis of the worldview shift. Carl F. Henry wrote, "If modern culture is to escape the oblivion that has engulfed the earlier civilizations of man, the recovery of the will of the self-revealed God in the realm of justice and law is crucially imperative." (God, Revelation, and Authority. Vol 6)

The obvious answer is to be informed, to research and understand the past history and the current dangers, while turning to the Bible for guidance in how to impact the culture today. Pray for revival and let it begin with the willingness to become involved. Christian Education is essential to American Liberty. It is essential to the propagation of The Christian religion. Without that true American foundation existing, we will succumb to tyranny.

"The time has come that Christians must vote for honest men and take consistent ground in politics, or the Lord will curse them...God cannot sustain this free and blessed country, which we love and pray for, unless the Church will take right ground. Politics are a part of religion in such a country as this, and Christians must do their duty to the country as a part of their duty to God." Charles Finney

"He therefore is the truest friend to the liberty of his country who tries most to promote its virtue, and who, so far as his power and influence extend, will not suffer a man to be chosen into any office of power and trust who is not a wise and virtuous man...The sum of all is, if we would most truly enjoy this gift of Heaven, let us become a virtuous people." Samuel Adams

"It is impossible to mentally or socially enslave a Bible-reading people. The principles of the Bible are the groundwork of human freedom." Horace Greeley

"The family has always been the cornerstone of American society. Our families nurture, preserve, and pass on to each succeeding generation the values we share and cherish, values that are the foundation for our freedoms. In the family we learn our first lessons of God and man, love and discipline, rights and responsibilities.... Families maintain the spiritual strength of religious commitment among our people.... It is essential... that each of us remembers that the strength of our families is vital to the strength of our nation." President Ronald Reagan

The Origin of Old Glory-----our American Flag

Bobbie Ames - Friday, January 01, 2016

It is the story of freedom, liberty, and equal justice under law. Our flag has gone through the evolution of our ideas and of our free institutions. The flag is our symbol, our emblem for our ideas, our faith, our laws.

In our early days, when we were 13 British colonies, the banners borne by the Revolutionary forces widely varied.

The local flags and colonial banners displayed on land and sea during the first months of the American War for Independence carried the various grievances that the colonists had against the Mother Country.

The first public reference to the flag was published on March 10, 1774. A Boston newspaper, the "Massachusetts Spy", ran this poem about the flag:

"A ray of bright glory now beams from afar, Blest drawn of an empire to rise; The American Ensign now sparkles a star, Which shall shortly flame wide through the skies."

In the summer of 1775, when George Washington had been appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Forces for the defense of American Liberty, the Continental Congress was still corresponding with King George to present their grievances. However, by the fall of 1775, the revolting citizens chose a flag that reflected their feeling of unity with the Mother Country, but expressed their demand to obtain justice and liberty.

In Taunton, Massachusetts, a flag was unfurled in 1774 which carried the British Jack in the canton, and had the words "Liberty and Union" printed on it.

The famous Rattlesnake Flag carried by the Minutemen in 1775 showed 13 red and white stripes with a rattlesnake emblazoned across it, warning "Don't Tread On Me."

In 1775, the banner that flew over Fort Moultrie displayed a crescent on a blue field with the word "Liberty" printed in white. When this flag was shot down by enemy muskets, a brave sergeant named Jasper, nailed it back to the staff at the risk of his life.

The Pine Tree Flag which flew over the troops at Bunker Hill in 1775, displayed the pine tree symbol of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was a white flag, with top and bottom stripe of blue, and it showed a green pine tree with the words "Liberty Tree--An Appeal To God."

The first flag to represent the Colonies at sea was raised by John Paul Jones from the deck of the Alfred on December 3, 1775. One month later, George Washington displayed the same design and named it the Grand Union Flag. That was on January 2, 1776. It has thirteen alternate red and white stripes and a blue field with the crosses of Saint Andrew and Saint George on it.

After July 4, 1776, the people of the colonies felt the need of a new flag-- one that would be a national flag, an emblem of unity and independence. The Continental Congress acted:

"Resolved that the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate with red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field."

The significance of the colors was defined thus;

"White signified Purity and Innocence; Red, Hardiness and Valor; Blue, Vigilance, Perseverance, and Justice."

Francis Hopkinson, signer of the Declaration of Independence and a member of the Continental Congress, is credited with having designed the American Flag.

Betsy Ross, the flag maker in Philadelphia, is credited by historians of that period with having made the first flag and having suggested that the stars be five pointed. Betsy Ross's Philadelphia home at 239 Arch Street is a national shrine, and the flag flies on a staff from her third floor window. Betsy Ross' grandson, William J. Canby, wrote in 1857 that he vividly recalled, as a boy of eleven, being told the story by Betsy Ross herself, his 84 year old grandmother.

He remembers: "It is not tradition, it is a report from the lips of the principal participator in the transaction, directly told not to one or two, but to a dozen or more living witnesses, of which I myself am one, though but a little boy when I heard it..... Colonel Ross with Robert Morris and General Washington called on Mrs. Ross and told her they were a committee of Congress, and wanted her to make a flag from the drawing, a rough one, which upon her suggestions, was redrawn by General Washington in pencil in her back parlor. This was prior to the Declaration of Independence. I fix the date to be during Washington's visit to Congress from New York, in June, 1776, when he came to confer about the affairs of the Army, the flag being no doubt, one of these affairs."

There is in the National Archives of the Navy an order to be sent to Elizabeth Ross of Philadelphia, "for making ship colors"for 14 pounds, 12 shillings, and 2 pence.

The Marine Committee adopted on June 14, 1777 the theme of the red and white striped Union Flag of Holland, to be the flag of the thirteen United States of America. Ezra Stiles, President of Yale University, recorded in his diary the resolution passed by Congress in 1777.

"The Congress have substituted a new constella of thirteen stars instead of the Union in the Continental Colors."


On August 2, 1777, British and Indians attacked Fort Stanwiz, at Rome, New York. The fort was defended by Colonel Peter Gansevorrt with 600 men. Lt. Col. Melton arrived at the fort with ammunition and supplies to defend the fort. He brought newspapers with the account of the newly enacted flag resolution.

Amid great excitement, soldiers gave up their white shirts, one of the wives at the fort donated her red flannel petticoat, and Captain Abraham Swartwout's blue coat was donated to provide the blue field for the Union.

In the Battle of Guildford Courthouse, March 25, 1781, is the first time that the Stars and Stripes were carried by the North Carolina Militia of the American Army in the Revolutionary War. It had thirteen eight-pointed stars.

A bronze historical marker close to the Detroit Riverfront identifies the spot where the American Flag was first raised along the Great Lakes, on July 25, 1791.

When George Washington transferred his army from Boston to New York, he carried the Grand Flag with him, and raised it over his headquarters.

On April 24, 1778, John Paul Jones wrote, "Following the first naval victory, I hoisted the American Stars."

Flag Day celebrates the birth of our Flag as of June 14, 1777. We continue to celebrate Flag Day on June 14th annually. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation calling for a national observance for Flag Day. Harry Truman signed the measure into law.

The great passion for Liberty was expressed in Scripture. The admonition in Lev. XXV: X (25:10) is inscribed on our Liberty Bell. "Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof."

Our own George Washington proclaimed Liberty, "Government is not reason; it is not eloquence, it is force. Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master."

"Woe to them that decree unjust statutes and to those who continually record unjust decisions to deprive the needy of justice, and to rob the poor of My people of their rights..."Isaiah 12:1-2

Our Framers and Founders understood that our rights are derived from our Creator, the Great Legislator of the Universe. John Adams, our Second President, said it well:

"You have rights antecedent to all earthly governments; rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws, rights derived from the Great Legislator of the Universe."

Biblical References "Ensign/Ensigns"

Numbers 2:2The Lord said to Moses and Aaron: "The Israelites are to camp around the Tent of Meeting some distance from it, each man under his standard with the banners of his family."

Isaiah 5:26He lifts up a banner for the distant nations, he whistles for those at the ends of the earth. Here they come, swiftly and speedily!

Isaiah 11:10In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and his place of rest will be glorious.

Isaiah 11:12He will raise a banner for the nations and gather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah.

Isaiah 18:3All you people of the world, you who live on the earth, when a banner is raised on the mountains, you will see it, and when a trumpet sounds, you will hear it.

Isaiah 30:17A thousand will flee at the threat of one; at the threat of five you will all flee away, till you are left like a flagstaff on a mountaintop, like a banner on a hill.

Isaiah 31:9Their stronghold will fall because of terror, at sight of the battle standard their commanders will panic.

Zachariah 9:16The Lord their God will save them on that day as the flock of his people. They will sparkle in his land like jewels in a crown.

Psalm 74:4Your foes roared in the place where you met with us; they set up their standards as signs.

The Coming of Christ: The Fulfillment Of Covenant Promise

Bobbie Ames - Tuesday, December 01, 2015

Our Creator God has always extended covenants to His children. To Adam, it was clearly stated that he might eat of“every tree in the garden, except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.” Gen. 2:17-18)Adam's obligation was merely obedience.

To Noah, who found Grace in the eyes of the Lord, God spoke, “With thee I will establish my covenant, thou shall come into the ark, thou and thy sons and thy sons' wives, with thee.” Noah's reward came through obedience and trust.

After the Tower of Babel and the dispersion of the people, God still offered Grace through a covenant with Abraham. “I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless them, and make thy name great, and thou shall be a blessing. And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee, and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.”(Gen. 12:2-3)

Over the centuries, theologians have placed an emphasis on the Covenants of God. For John Calvin and John Knox, the very substance of the Covenants of the Old and New Testaments were the same: Jesus Christ and the Gospel of Salvation, from the beginning of Creation to the fulfillment of the Second Coming.

Other theologians saw two distinct Covenants: one, a Covenant of Works, and the second, a Covenant of Grace. The Covenant of Works is sometimes called a legal or “natural” covenant, founded in nature, but also founded in the Law of God, which was written (engraven) in man's heart in the beginning. And in that, Adam was promised eternal life.

Our early American churches were heavily influenced by Reformation thought, and especially cherished was the writing of the Reformers, one being Samuel Rutherford (1600-1661). Rutherford wrote what he embraced as “The Covenant for Life,” owing all that we are and have to Him, who gave Himself for us.

Writing in his “Covenant for Life,” Rutherford declared “The Lord punished Christ for us to declare the glory of His justice, in punishing sin in His own Son, who was the sinner by imputation.”

The depth of Rutherford's writing is found in his book, Christ Dying and Drawing Sinners To Himself. He alerts us to the fact that the atoning sacrifice for sin, was much more profound than the satisfaction of Justice---it was what took place in the inner heart, the inner person of Jesus Christ.

So as Christmas approaches, and we contemplate celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ, and his fulfillment of the Covenant of Grace, how do we experience that covenant in a very personal way? As we think of the baby Jesus in a manger, can we even fathom the Father's only begotten Son, before the world began, already the appointed Redeemer of the Father's Creation.

It is difficult to even imagine the love that would lead to the Son taking on human flesh of soul and body, and submitting himself to the Law, suffering the death of the Cross, redeeming all who believe from sin and death. Before the world began, Christ agreed to pay the price for our redemption and purchased for us all the benefits of “free” Grace and reconciliation.

The Covenant of Grace is foretold in the sacraments of Circumcision, of Baptism, and of the Lord’s Supper. It is beautifully pictured in the sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb, which should enrich our everyday life and constant worship.

One of the respected theologians of today is Dr. Morton H. Smith, who taught in several seminaries, including Reformed Seminary in Mississippi and Greenville Presbyterian Seminary in South Carolina, where he was Dean of the Faculty. He served as Stated Clerk in the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in America from its founding in 1973 to 1988.

His writing on Covenant Theology would likely bring a revival to many churches if taken to heart in today's church culture. We highly recommend it. Writing on the Covenants, he reminds us, that “the covenant idea stressed the legal, binding relation between God and His people. Since the covenant idea binds men unto God, this can only be effected on the basis of reconciliation between the Holy God and sinful men. This is the essence of the Covenant designated as the Covenant of Grace.”

When a person accepts Christ by faith as their personal Savior, there is a spiritual union. The judicial ground of that union is found in the Covenant of Grace. Christ sealed the Covenant with His own blood. This glorious truth, writes Dr. Smith, enables us “to become partakers of the redemption purchased by Christ through the federal, spiritual, and mystical union with Him. Scripture sets forth this union as embracing every phase of the saving relation, both in the purpose of God and in its realization.”

I Corinthians 15:19-49andRomans 5:12-21established that, just as Adam was head of the human race, Christ is the constituted head of the new humanity, and acted in a representative capacity to His Elect. We die because of our relation to the first Adam, but we live by faith in Christ. Yes, He gives us eternal life.

Romans 16:25addresses the “mystery” which was kept “secret” since the world began. Paul speaks of the “mystery” in Romans chapter 5, and again in Colossians chapter 1, which is “Christ in you, the hope of Glory.” The very thought of the God of the Universe loving us individually enough to indwell us, is beyond human understanding. And our being united with other believers is promised and fulfilled. Read John 17over and over, and rejoice in the Glory.

This glorious Union with Christ gives us daily, even moment by moment, communion with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. We can experience the continual love of the Bridegroom, because through His Covenant, we are reconciled to Him.

God's Covenant of Grace is the central unifying theme of the entire Bible. Once we are united in Christ, there is no power that can remove us from His Grace. (John 6:39 & John 10:28-30)

As we gather together and sing our Christmas carols, and reach out to others at this glorious time of the year, may the Covenant remain our focus. For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him, should not perish, but have eternal life.”(John 3:16)


For more information about Dr. Morton H. Smith’s writing and Covenant Theology, a good source is the Bookstore of Greenville Presbyterian Seminary, P.O Box 690, Taylors, SC. 29687.

"The Lord Hath Done Great Things For Us; Whereof We Are Glad." Psalms 126:3

Bobbie Ames - Sunday, November 01, 2015

The tragic lessons of History will be repeated if History is removed from a nation's memory, as it has been for several generations. America's Christian History was replaced by Social Studies in public schools nearly a century ago. How many adults know what sacrifice and triumph brought about our uniquely American Holiday tradition of Thanksgiving?

Through brief bits of the story here, let's look at this American legacy, our own American heritage, and embrace it for a true Thanksgiving celebration this year. Go back with me to the Pilgrim Fathers of 1620, who embarked on the adventure of colony planting, with no experience, and no skills for the task, only seeking freedom of worship and self-government.

Picture the wild land and the wild sea, the bitter cold winter of 1620, and the illnesses which cost them half of their lives the first year. The contract with the mercenary shareholders who funded the "adventure", required them to practice Communism in labor and supply, denying them private property rights and other incentives.

If communism would ever work, it would have worked for this colony, where people were deeply religious and loved one another, as well as having a work ethic.

Governor William Bradford took over the leadership of the colony upon the death of Governor Carver in the first year. Bradford ruled almost continually for thirty seven years, until his death. His literary gift has left us a detailed and documented history that is a treasure for every lover of History, and every seeker of Truth. The lesson of the Pilgrims rejecting Communism can be valuable today and help us to come against another similar "Pernicious System," as they called it. That system is strong in our post modern world today.

After abiding by the terms of their contract for two years, seeing that communism had brought the colony to the verge of ruin, Governor Bradford "had the courage to cut the knot he could not untie." He divided the land among the families, and placed every single person in a family unit. Attitudes changed. Now, mothers with children would go willingly in the fields to help their husbands. Wives were pleased to wash the clothing of their family rather than collectively. Working their own field, laboring together as a family brought peace and incentive, and Bradford wrote: "any general want or suffering hath not been among us since to this day." Every adult shared in the responsibility to pay the just debts, through private ownership and free enterprise, which brought into being a successful and profitable fur trade. Commerce, industry and brotherly love combined for success.

Yes, abolishing communism may have been a violation of the contract, but Governor Bradford saw that the system was pernicious (destructive) and the colony had a life and death struggle for survival. He made a defining decision and Free Enterprise was instituted.

Why do we remember this little colony, with never more than a few thousand people? God's Providence shown in their story is dramatic. In their own words, they prayed to be "stepping stones for others" to migrate, and indeed they were. They were the forerunners of the great Puritan migration of the 1630s.

When the Mayflower ship returned to England, not one Pilgrim was aboard. That little band of believers had introduced a new powerful force on this continent – that of individual religious liberty in practice. Unable to reform the Church of England, now they could walk with God, raise their families in a church congregation guided by God's Word alone, not by the King and not by the Civil Magistrate.

"The glories of Christianity are to be traced in the sufferings of confessors and martyrs of the 16th and 17th Centuries; and it was under the influence of Christian principles, imbibed at this very period, that the Mayflower brought over the band of Pilgrims to Plymouth....We should never forget that the prison, the scaffold, and the stake were stages in the march of civil and religious liberty which our forefathers had to travel, in order that we might obtain our present liberty......"

"Before our children remove their religious connections.....before they leave the old paths of God's Word.....before they barter their birthright for a mess of pottage...let us place in their hands the chronicle of the glorious days of the suffering Churches, and let them know that they are the sons of the men 'of whom the world was not worthy' and 'whose sufferings for conscience sake' are here monumentally recorded." John Overton Choules, August 12, 1843.

Preface to the 1844 reprint of Neal's "History of the Puritans,"1731The Christian History of the Constitution, FACE, 1966

On that simple First Thanksgiving, one dynamic rises above all others. This small group of survivors labored to bring Glory to God for His Providence. They had survived hunger, disease, native attacks, unreasonable demands of their shareholders, the death of spouses, children, and best friends. Living in a wilderness they were utterly dependent and faithfully relying on God to sustain them. They rejoiced in freedom of worship and in the civil liberty of Christian self-government. They had been successful in establishing a covenant relationship with their Indian neighbors, who were present at the First Thanksgiving. Can you not see the Hand of God using those first seeds, which brought forth for us: Individual Liberty of Conscience, Christian self-government, and ultimately a Christian Constitutional Republic. May it be restored today.

A Day of Thanksgiving has been a continuing tradition in our nation. The Journals of the Continental Congress record a Proclamation by the United States Congress assembled on Saturday, October 18, 1783. These words are a portion of that proclamation:

"Whereas it has pleased the Supreme Ruler of all human events, to dispose the hearts of the later belligerent powers to put a period to the effusion of human blood, by proclaiming a cessation of all hostilities by sea and land, and these United States are not only happily rescued from the dangers and calamities to which they have been so long exposed, but their freedom, sovereignty and independence ultimately acknowledged..........The interposition of Divine Providence in our favor has been most abundantly and most graciously manifested, and the citizens of these United States have every reason for praise and gratitude to the God of their Salvation. Impressed therefore, with an exalted sense of the blessings by which we are surrounded, and of our entire dependence on that Almighty Being, from whose goodness and bounty they are derived, the United States in Congress assembled, to set apart the second Thursday in December next, as a day of public Thanksgiving, that all the people may then assemble to celebrate with grateful hearts and united voices, the praises of their Supreme and all bountiful Benefactor, for His numberless favors and mercies."

The Proclamation further leads in offering prayers for forgiveness, for wisdom to be granted, for prosperity for every good work, for peace for the nations, for blessings in the labors of the people, for commerce and navigation, for education and for the seminaries and all means of education, for true religion to flourish, and that the world be filled with His Glory. October 18th, 1783.

John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts, called for a Day of Thanksgiving established in a proclamation dated November 8, 1783. In his proclamation, he praises the Lord for the "Unanimity and Resolution to adhere to our just Rights...." He refers to God as "our powerful Ally to assist us in supporting" those Just Rights. He pleads to continue "in the light of the Blessed Gospel, and secure for us, to the fullest Extent, the Rights of Conscience in Faith and Worship." And so much more is in his proclamation. We see pure Biblical Christianity strong here, and in the virtue of the character of these founders.

This Thanksgiving season, as a family and as a blessed nation, let us have a true celebration of praise and thankfulness to The Lord Who has done so great things for us.

Let me urge readers to go to the website (FACE.Net) of the Foundation for American Christian Education, Chesapeake, Va. and learn of their publications on America's Christian History. Also, they publish the Webster's 1828 Dictionary of the English Language, which is the language of liberty.

The Source for these Proclamations: The Bible and The Constitution, published by FACE.

More information is available through the writer of this column, Mrs. Bobbie Ames,

The Mayflower Compact (1620)

In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereigne Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britaine, France and Ireland king, defender of the faith, etc. having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honour of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civill body politick, for our better ordering and preservation, and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enacte, constitute, and frame such just and equall laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete and convenient for the generall good of the Colonie unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape-Codd the 11. of November, in the year of the raigne of our sovereigne lord, King James, of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fiftie-fourth. Anno Dom. 1620.

John Carver, Edward Tilley, Degory Priest, William Bradford, John Tilley, Thomas Williams, Edward Winslow, Francis Cooke, Gilbert Winslow, William Brewster, Thomas Rogers, Edmund Margeson, Issac Allerton, Thomas Tinker, Peter Browne, Myles Standish, John Rigdale, Richard Britteridge, John Alden, Edward Fuller, George Soule, Samuel Fuller, John Turner, Richard Clarke, Christopher Martin, Francis Eaton, Richard Gardiner, William Mullins, James Chilton, John Allerton, William White, John Crackston, Thomas English, Richard Warren, John Billington, Edward Dotey, John Howland, Moses Fletcher, Edward Leister, Stephen Hopkins, John Goodman

America is at a Crossroad, The Agenda to Erase America

Bobbie Ames - Thursday, October 01, 2015

ALL IS NOT WELL IN AMERICA. The enemy is targeting Christianity, and is doing so through attacking political and religious liberty. Pastors and chaplains are threatened, even chaplains at prison systems where they are so badly needed. Crosses are removed as "offensive." Such a thing would have been unthinkable when I was a child. Public schools have not only removed the teaching of the Bible as absolute moral Truth, but are redefining gender, if you can comprehend such a thing. Some are even removing the name of "girl" "boy" on bathroom doors.

And many of those arriving on our shores come to destroy our country. Since January, 2015, over 50 U.S. citizens have been arrested for terror plots, according to Todd Starnes of Fox News. The ISIS strategy includes the use of the internet for propaganda to recruit young people to join their efforts. They are recruiting individuals to engage in "lone wolf" tactics, to act out terror in an American or European city. We have seen this in American cities in multiple states.

There have been 5,000 Westerners go to Syria to aid ISIS. Most of these have had high tech skills according to Todd Starnes, acclaimed reporter and author of the recently released, God Less America. These have gone to support radical Islam. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul area alone, there have been brought in 100,000 Somali Muslims. Very few people are aware that in America, city after city has been targeted as a Refugee resettlement location. Jim Simpson, author of the book, The Red-Green Axis, is alerting the nation to this mass immigration, which the mainline Media seems to be ignoring. The subtitle of his book is: Refugees, Immigration and The Agenda to Erase America, published by the Center for Security Policy in Washington, D.C.

Terrorism is driven by the faulty faith of Islam and by an end time reward for Jihad.


Christ followers are driven by their faith in the person of Jesus Christ, the authority of his word, salvation by his grace through faith for all who believe, and by the promise of eternal life.

So America is at a Crossroad today. The faith that made our country what she has been in the past and can be again tomorrow, has been compromised in government, in law, in the political system, and in personal choices. The weakening of the pulpits has weakened the churches and families of our nation. We all have a choice today as we stand at the crossroad.

In the Founding of our nation, the vast majority of citizens were Patriots in the most loyal manner. And as Christian Patriots, the vast majority practiced virtue in their private and public lives. When you read the writings of the Founding Fathers, you are reading the political philosophy that stemmed from the Orthodox Christian Protestant Reformation. This is what inspired their ideals and high standards, and compelled their strong admonitions to their fellow citizens.

Their Western civilized culture was new to the world stage. Harvard, Princeton, and Yale were founded as Bible Colleges. All were committed to educate pastors and a citizenry to oversee a just republican government. From the colleges and universities to the smallest common schools, this Christian world view was taught, and Patriotism was cherished. All education could truly be called Christian Education at that time.

So cherished was Scripture that principles from the Bible were embedded in every document: The Magna Charta, The Articles of Confederation, The Declaration of Independence, and The Constitution. For these to be maintained, citizens had to be taught diligently: history, duty, honor, virtue, citizenship, obligations, and willing obedience to the law.

As a History teacher for many decades, I love true History. Yes, I weep over our failings and try to learn from them. I love the South. The Southern States of the American Union provided 9 of our first 12 presidents. They provided 80% of the federal budget during that period. They birthed Statesmen that blessed the entire Union. They did not welcome "radicals."

When the French Revolution came and its influence reached our shores, many were influenced in ways contrary to God's Word. What we refer to as Secular Humanism today, advanced in the marketplace, and then into education. It became rampant in the Northern States before we were aware of its creeping into the Southern culture as well. Expediency took the place of Duty, and Pragmatism replaced Virtue. The "Enlightenment" was really a rebellion against God. Not in every family, of course. The Sovereign God of the Universe has His remnant always.

We live in a Postmodern age which is anti-Biblical and therefore, non Christian. I trust that those reading this article are professing Christians, and recognize that we are the remnant whose goal must be to restore our culture to that of true Christianity, and our government to its Christian foundation. What would this mean? What would the government look like, if restored?

Let us say right here, because it is crucial: Colonial education supported the Biblical view of the culture, the law, and political affairs. This was true of colleges and academies, for almost all were founded as Christian schools and colleges.This continued long after the signing of the Constitution. It was the same for law and legal education. Every Colonial Charter was a Christian document.

The Bible was the single most cited reference, as the most respected authoritative source to which political writers appealed.Modern pastors would do well to read the sermons from the pulpits of America from the colonial period well into the early nineteenth century. The political sermons were addressed to the military, to governors, legislators, government officials, and many in the Halls of Congress. Reprinted and distributed, some even today, are inspiring messages badly needed in our time.

Our documents leave no doubt about the identity of our God. In The Articles of Confederation, He is called the "Great Governor of the World." The understanding of the sin nature of man inspired the Framers to put checks and balances against the centralization of political power, and the rule of law against the arbitrary rule of man. The separation of powers, checks and balances, and representative government, all stemmed from the teaching of Scripture concerning the Fall of Man, and the resulting sin nature in every man.

What do we mean when we say "a Christian view of the world?" Very simply, it means a Biblical view of God, man, life, politics, culture, and eternity. Therefore, the Framers gave us Law which incorporates that view of law and politics. That was a natural consensus in those days which has been lost in our time.

John Jay, writing in The Federalist reminds us of those days, "Providence has been pleased to give us this one connected country to one connected people... a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government...."

James Madison, writing in The Federalist 51 wrote: "If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself."

The Framers had seen the danger of one man rule, and saw the need of protecting the minority, as well as a majority. And the mixed form of our government protects everyone. The role of one man is in the executive department. Some components of majority rule are in the House of Representatives. More separation of powers are in the Senate and Courts.

The political principles in the Preamble to the Constitution came from the Bible. They affirmed God's created system of what we call Natural Law. Almost all of the Framers had studied and internalized Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. They affirmed that "God is the Supreme Judge of all of His Creation." "Righteousness and Justice are the foundation of your throne..."(Psalms 89:14)

So much of the Constitution is framed to insure Justice in the culture. This should not surprise any of us since the Ten Commandments are a summary definition of Justice. I challenge the reader to read the Commandments to verify this definition. As wonderful as our Constitution is, it cannot change the hearts of the American people. It cannot restore a broken family or restore domestic tranquility in this broken culture. So how do we secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity? God has told us that "where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is Liberty."(2 Cor. 3:17)

It comes down to the remnant, doesn't it? If America will be born again, restored, and well again, the remnant is essential. Where are we today, when we are needed so badly? The citizens in our state and nation are diverse. Millions did not come from the Protestant Reformation tradition, and have never understood its background, or heard the Gospel. Millions are not even comfortable with the English language. They have come to these shores for multiple reasons, but many with hope for a better life. It is up to us as Christians, to identify what a better life is----- Eternal life, through the Gospel of Jesus Christ. And with a growing Christian testimony, comes an understanding of justice, equality, opportunity, and domestic tranquility.

Our obligation to our fellow man is clearly set before us as true Christian Americans, to bear witness to the liberating power of the Gospel, through the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Only as men and women are won to Christ, will they embrace His love for themselves. Only then can America become a beacon of light in a very dark world.We have the Message: He is a Person, Jesus Christ, the Savior of mankind, the only hope for America.

Recommended reading of America's Christian History

Available locally Christianity and the Constitution by Dr. John Eidsmoe of Montgomery, Alabama.

The Plymouth Foundation, Plymouth, MA.


1901 Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 201, Washington, DC 20006.


For more information, please

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